SANITATION MISSON IN KERALA ‘CANALPY’

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Canalpy (CanAlappuzha) is an initiative taken by the citizens of Alappuzha or Alleppey, Kerala to reclaim the canals of the town. With the tagline of “Canals are not drains”, it strives to clean, sustain and inspire the people to take care of their surroundings and make a difference to society!

The grace with which Alappuzha greets each one of its tourists is a globally discussed phenomena. Squeezed between the Vembanad Lake and the glorious Arabian Sea, Alappuzha is a luscious geographical location that caters to the local population and tourist population alike. The picturesque canals of Alappuzha functioned as one of the crucial infrastructures for the operation of the local economy. Unfortunately, the legacy of canals faded away with the introduction of road transportation. However, the importance of Canals has reached its pinnacle today. The residents of Alappuzha has decided to lead this movement, to revive the legacy.

 

Canalpy
Timeline

THE STORY OF CANALPY

Canalpy is about constant efforts towards awareness, sensitization, mobilization of citizens and local stakeholders . The change (preserving, protecting the commons) that we are aiming at through our campaign, does not happen overnight. It needs continuous engagement and contribution from people from different walks of life at various levels. The sequence of the programmes listed below is a result of the outcome of previously held events.

 

Ocean Currents

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Ocean currents 

Deeper currents depend on water pressure, temperature, and salt content.Currents on the surface often depend on wind. They travel clockwise in the northern hemisphere. They travel counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. They are found up to 400 metres (1,300 ft) below the surface of the ocean.

An ocean current is a continuous movement of ocean water from one place to another. Ocean currents are created by wind, water temperature, salt content, and the gravity of the moon. The current’s direction and speed depend on the shoreline and the ocean floor. They can flow for thousands of miles and are found in all the major oceans of the world. One major example of an ocean current is the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean. Ocean currents can be found on the water surface and deeper down.

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VIDEO

 

 

 

TIDES

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Tides 

Tidal phenomena are not limited to the oceans, but can occur in other systems whenever a gravitational field that varies in time and space is present. For example, the shape of the solid part of the Earth is affected slightly by Earth tide, though this is not as easily seen as the water tidal movements.
While tides are usually the largest source of short-term sea-level fluctuations, sea levels are also subject to forces such as wind and barometric pressure changes, resulting in storm surges, especially in shallow seas and near coasts.

Tides vary on timescales ranging from hours to years due to a number of factors, which determine the lunitidal interval. To make accurate records, tide gauges at fixed stations measure water level over time. Gauges ignore variations caused by waves with periods shorter than minutes. These data are compared to the reference (or datum) level usually called mean sea level.

Tide tables can be used to find the predicted times and amplitude (or “tidal range”) of tides at any given locale. The predictions are influenced by many factors including the alignment of the Sun and Moon, the phase and amplitude of the tide (pattern of tides in the deep ocean), the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and near-shore bathymetry (see Timing). They are however only predictions, the actual time and height of the tide is affected by wind and atmospheric pressure. Some shorelines experience a semi-diurnal tide—two nearly equal high and low tides each day. Other locations experience a diurnal tide—only one high and low tide each day. A “mixed tide”—two uneven tides a day, or one high and one low—is also possible

In the above picture you get to see the high tide and the low tide .

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun, and the rotation of Earth.

youtube video on tides

 

Oceanic Waves

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Waves

The ocean is never still. Whether observing from the beach or a boat, we expect to see waves on the horizon. Waves are created by energy passing through water, causing it to move in a circular motion. However, water does not actually travel in waves. Waves transmit energy, not water, across the ocean and if not obstructed by anything, they have the potential to travel across an entire ocean basin.

Waves are most commonly caused by wind. Wind-driven waves, or surface waves, are created by the friction between wind and surface water. As wind blows across the surface of the ocean or a lake, the continual disturbance creates a wave crest. These types of waves are found globally across the open ocean and along the coast.

More potentially hazardous waves can be caused by severe weather, like a hurricane. The strong winds and pressure from this type of severe storm causes storm surge, a series of long waves that are created far from shore in deeper water and intensify as they move closer to land. Other hazardous waves can be caused by underwater disturbances that displace large amounts of water quickly such as earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic eruptions. These very long waves are called tsunamis. Storm surge and tsunamis are not the types of waves you imagine crashing down on the shore. These waves roll upon the shore like a massive sea level rise and can reach far distances inland.

The gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the earth also causes waves. These waves are tides or, in other words, tidal waves. It is a common misconception that a tidal wave is also a tsunami. The cause of tsunamis are not related to tide information at all but can occur in any tidal state.

video on waves

Distribution of water bodies

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Etymology

The word “water” comes from Old English “wæter”, from Proto-Germanic “*watar” (source also of Old Saxon “watar”, Old Frisian “wetir”, Dutch “water”, Old High German “wazzar”, German “Wasser”, Old Norse “vatn”, Gothic “wato”), from Proto-Indoeuropean “*wod-or”, suffixed form of root “*wed-” (“water”; “wet)

The distribution of water on the Earth’s surface is extremely uneven. Only 3% of water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the ocean. Of freshwater, 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground, and less than 1% is located in lakes, rivers, and swamps. Looked at another way, only one percent of the water on the Earth’s surface is usable by humans, and 99% of the usable quantity is situated underground.

All one needs to do is study rainfall maps to appreciate how uneven the distribution of water really is. The white areas on the map below had annual rainfall under 400 mm for the last year, which makes them semi-arid or arid. And, remember, projections are for significant aridification to occur in many dry regions and for more severe rainfall events to characterize wet regions.

Water is a precious resource

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Today I have chosen the topic Water from NCERT textbook class 7th.  With my blog I am trying to deal with the contents and simplifying it for the students for their better understanding .

I have also added few pictures as well as added links for the students to understand the concept of water , its sources and different terminologies .

Below I have briefed  about water and how precious it is as an resume.

Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans.

It is important because it is needed for life to exist.

Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities.

Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water.

Only 2.5% of water on the Earth is fresh water, and over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.

Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world, and many more areas are expected to experience this imbalance in the near future.

It is estimated that 70% of world-wide water use is for irrigation in agriculture.

Climate change will have significant impacts on water resources around the world because of the close connections between the climate and hydrologic cycle.

Due to the expanding human population competition for water is growing such that many of the worlds major aquifers are becoming depleted.

Many pollutants threaten water supplies, but the most widespread, especially in underdeveloped countries, is the discharge of raw sewage into natural waters.